Tag: Electrical upgrades

a. How to Choose an Electrical Cable

b. What Are Cable Ducts Used For

Summary:

a. How to Choose an Electrical Cable

– Selecting the cable cross-section for 230 V voltage

– Types of cables

– What happens if the section is too big

– Risks of too small section

– Safety tips

b. What Are Cable Ducts Used For

– What are cable ducts

– Key features of cable ducts

– Uses of the cable duct

– Different types of cable crossings

Introduction

The cable is like a pipe through which water must pass. The greater the amount of water to be transported, the larger the diameter of the pipe must be. The same goes for electricity! The greater the power or intensity, the larger the cross-section of the electric cables will have to be.

Select the cable cross-section for 230 V voltage

electric guide; 3×2.5 mm

The daily voltage is 230 V. Here is an indication of the appropriate wire cross-section according to the intensity or power required:

  • 1.5 mm² → 10 A → 2,300 W;
  • 2.5 mm² → 16 A → 3,680 W;
  • 4 mm² → 25 A → 5,750 W;
  • 6 mm² → 32 A → 7,360 W;
  • 10 mm² → 40 A → 9,200 W.

For example:

– 1.5 mm² cross-sections are used for lighting;

– those of 2.5 mm² are used for sockets, such as those used for household appliances (washing machine, refrigerator);

– those of 4 and 6 mm² are reserved for power circuits (electric stove, electric heating system, etc.).

Types of cables

Color coding makes electrical wiring easier:

– green/yellow stripes for the ground wire;

– blue for the neutral;

– red-brown, black or gray;

The name of a cable, made up of numbers and letters, indicates, among other things, the admissible voltage, the material of the sheath, the number of wires it contains, the presence or absence of an earth wire (respectively letter G or X).

Risks of too small section

A cable that is too small in diameter will suffer:

It will heat up due to the resistance of the cable, which can cause a fire and loss of tension.

A few safety tips:

– It is more prudent to choose a size that is 50% larger than recommended, to avoid overheating;

– It is better not to use conductors with a cross-section of less than 1 mm²;

– For safety reasons, the electrical wiring must be protected so that no accidental contact is possible.

It is best to run the cables through ducts, embedded in the walls.

If it is not possible to drill a groove, there are protective ducts and skirting boards that can be easily glued to any wall support.

What are cable ducts

Whatever the location, in any electrical installation, electrical cables represent a visual strain and, if not protected, can be damaged. A cable duct is a simple solution to this problem. This post tells you everything here.

Key features of cable ducts

Cable routing takes place during electrical installation in the home, at work or outdoors.

The cable feed-through is made by a cable guard, which by its application provides protection against:

– the risks of cuts;

– crushing in case of floor installation;

– humidity;

– ignition;

– any contact.

Note: in addition to its protective qualities, the cable passage also plays an aesthetic role, especially in the home where these types of accessories are real finished products.

Uses of the cable duct

The protection provided by the cable feed-through differs according to its use.

This means of protection can be used:

– in a professional/industrial environment, to protect cables on the ground from any vehicle passage in a warehouse;

– in the office, to organize electrical cables in a multimedia installation;

– in the context of an exhibition or concert, to organize the passage of cables on the ground;

– outdoors, to protect cables crossing a roadway from road traffic and/or pedestrians;

– in the home, to conceal and protect the electrical installation.

Different types of cable crossings

The type of cable duct varies according to the needs of the installation.

Depending on the configuration, the cable duct can take the form of:

– a baseboard in case of wall installation (cable protection baseboard);

– a threshold bar for floor installation (warning cable passage);

– a flexible spiral hose for organizing multimedia cables (organizer);

– flexible and rigid hoses in the construction frame (electrical ducts);

– a plastic trunking for the passage of cables in a home.

Good to know: the materials of the cable passage are varied and relative to the intended use (hard and rigid plastic, rubber, flexible steel, sheathed steel, etc.).

Do you need help from professionals?

Blue Diamond Electric is based in Suffolk County. They can provide you with complete residential electrical services: Emergency Electrician, Landscape lighting, Electrical Wiring, Home audio installation, Exhaust Fan Installation, Electrical upgrades, and more.

The distribution of electrical power is provided by cables which run from the distribution board to the electrical outlets, lighting points, the water heater, etc. The power is distributed by cables which consist of several electrical wires grouped together within the same protective sheath. This post provides you with all the information you need to know about cables, sheaths, and wires.

Contents:

– Electric current: the essential notions
– Electric cables and wires
– The color of the wires
– What to do if you are not sure of the color of the wires?
– Electrical sheaths

Electric current: the essential notions

Electricity is a complex energy. In your electrical installation, there are two types of current with different uses: high and low current.

High current supplies your electrical appliances and lighting.
Weak current, on the other hand, carries information in the form of weak electrical impulses. It is used to operate your television, telephony, Internet, alarm… These two currents must be separated by ducts. This post helps you to better understand how an electrical circuit works.

Electric cables and wires

The distribution of electric power is ensured by the cables. This post gives you the basics you need to know about the electrical wiring of an installation.

Cables differ in cross-section and color. There are three types of cross-sections. The thicker the cable, the more current it allows to pass through.

To differentiate them, electrical cables have colors. This color code is standardized so that you or any electrician can troubleshoot or modify the installation.

Good to know: think about cable management to hide and protect your electrical cables.

Before handling an electrical installation, it is imperative to know the color code associated with the various electrical wires. It is the NF C 15-100 which aims to define all the rules concerning electricity for the domestic habitat, and thus the color standards for electrical wires.

The color of electrical wires

Mandatory colors

Since 1970, the NF C 15-100 standard defines the compulsory colors for certain types of conductors: the protective conductor (earth) and the neutral conductor.

These are the only two compulsory colors for the domestic and tertiary sectors.

The double color green and yellow will be reserved exclusively for the earth conductor and the protective conductor in the cables.
The light blue color is reserved exclusively for the neutral conductor.

Color usage

For other conductors such as phase, lamp return, shuttles and pushers, there is no obligation mentioned in the standard, but the usage is as follows:

– red color: for the phase conductor;
– color orange: for the lamp return (the phase wire after the switch is switched off);
– purple: for shuttles;
– black or white: for the push-buttons.

Each company or craftsman will use its own color code, but it will generally resemble the one described above.

Colors before 1970

Attention, for older installations, the colors are different:

– for the phase: a green or a yellow wire;
– for the neutral conductor: gray or white;
– for the earth conductor: red or black.

Moreover, before 1969, the earth conductor was not compulsory or even non-existent.

What to do if you are not sure of the color of the wires?

There is a technique to know, even in the absence of certain colors, which are the phase, earth and neutral wires on a socket circuit. Using a multi meter, perform the following checks:

First, find a direct ground connection to which you can connect a long wire for testing.

Turn off your general circuit breaker to be sure to isolate the circuit to be tested, but especially to be sure to disconnect the neutral. More than 35 years ago, the neutral conductors in a panel were common and grouped together on the same strip, and therefore not cut when the circuit protection was opened.

Set your multi meter to the “Ohms” or “continuity test” position and connect one of the cords to the wire that is grounded. Using the other cord, test all three wires in the circuit: normally, only one should cause your multi meter to react. This wire will be the ground and you will need to tape it with green/yellow tape.

Let’s now look for the phase and neutral, which will now be live: so be careful, there is danger. Your multi meter, always connected to earth, must be set to the higher rating than 230 V AC. On one of the wires, you should have 230 V: this will be the phase; on the other wire, 0 V: this will be the neutral.

Ring the phase in red and the neutral in blue.

Warning: if you have any doubts, it is advisable to call a professional, who will be better able to test your circuits.

Electrical sheaths

To ensure the electrical safety of your installation, the electrical wiring must be protected by a sheath. The electrical sheath is the most commonly used to protect electrical wires. It is a corrugated, insulated conduit used to group different wires together and embed them in a wall.

Presented in the form of a crown, it can be cut to the desired size. A wire puller makes it easier to pass electrical wires through.

This type of sheath exists in different diameters: 16 mm, 20 mm, 32 mm, etc.

Good to know: always provide an electrical sheath that is wider than you need it to be immediately, so that you can later allow the passage of the wires needed to create a new circuit.

Housing Technical Sheath

The housing technical duct is mandatory in all new housing. It gathers in a single location the arrivals of strong currents (electricity) and weak currents (communication).

This electrical duct must be located in the dwelling or in the garage or an easily accessible annex.

It must contain various elements:

– control panel;

– main distribution board;

– communication box;

– two 16 A socket outlets;

– communication applications (television, etc.).

and possibly:

– anti-intrusion protection;

– home automation.

The housing duct can be surface, flush or semi-recessed.

If you are looking for complete residential electrical services, you can get in touch with Blue Diamond Electric. They are duly licensed and insured electrical installation specialists in Suffolk County, thereby ensuring all work is carried out to the highest standards.

Summary:

– Usefulness of an extractor fan

– Choosing an extractor fan

– Installing an extractor fan

– Purchase and price of an extractor fan

In addition to or instead of mechanical ventilation, it is possible to add an extractor fan or ventilator in a room. Whether to maintain indoor air quality or to evacuate humidity, the extractor fan provides adjustable ventilation for greater health and comfort: extraction of smoke or kitchen odours, residual humidity or radon emitted by the ground and rocks, heat evacuation, etc…

Usefulness of an extractor fan

It is first of all in the tertiary sector that air extractors were required. Industrial fumes and vapours, heat released by machines, humidity in the baths, crowds of people… Anything that corrupts the air in a room first requires that this stale air be evacuated before it can be replaced by clean, fresh and healthy air.

In office and residential premises, where the power of an industrial extractor is not required and where its nuisances have no place (lack of aesthetics, clutter, noise), the much more discreet mechanical ventilation has been preferred. Whereas the mechanical ventilation system requires a centralized installation to be studied during construction or renovation in order to place the outlets, position the casing and the ducts, it is almost always possible to install an extractor fan.

Although its role is always the same (to extract stale air), its applications are numerous to extract:

– hot air (kitchens, technical rooms, workshops, etc.),

– smoke and odours (kitchens, production rooms, sanitary facilities, etc.),

– humidity (bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms, etc.),

– carbon dioxide and water vapour emitted by breathing in the main rooms in order to create the negative pressure required to bring healthy air into all residential and tertiary premises.

Choosing an extractor fan

The choice of an extractor fan will be made first of all according to its performance and aesthetics, then its comfort of use and finally its ease of installation.

The performances

Performance is measured in relation to the air flow rate expressed in cubic metres per hour (m³/h). In principle, hygienic ventilation must be adapted to the surface area of the dwelling and the average number of occupants resulting from this surface area.

– One person: 50 m³/h.

– Two persons: 60 m³/h.

– Three persons: 80 m³/h.

– Four persons: 105 m³/h.

Aesthetics

Its aesthetics can be sought with a studied design, with removable and interchangeable decors, or basic or even non-existent for extractor fans integrated in the exhaust duct.

The comfort

The comfort of use depends first of all on the noise emitted by the ventilation, as some are particularly quiet and others rather noisy. The sound level is expressed in decibels (db). On the other hand, devices allow interesting functions to be studied according to use and location: hygrostat, presence detector for automatic start and stop, multiple and/or variable speeds, time delay, programming…

Ease of installation

The ease of installation will depend above all on the electrical connection possibilities (protection class in particular) and the possible types of installation (wall and/or ceiling).

Good to know: pay attention to the installation of an electric extractor fan in rooms (bathroom, shower room) where the principle of electrical protection volume is applicable. Similarly in the kitchen, it is important to ensure that a specific kitchen extractor fan is installed, protected against grease deposits from the fumes.

Installing an extractor fan

The extractor fan is usually installed on a wall where the ductwork that extends it passes through to the outside or into a service room. There are also invisible extractor fans that are fully integrated into the exhaust duct. Inside its housing, an electrically driven fan is responsible for exhausting the stale air in the exhaust duct which channels it to a wall outlet outside the room (outside facade or service room).

In addition to the invisible extractors, there are also extractor fans with an extra-flat and very stylish interior façade so that they can be matched or blend in with the décor of almost any interior. The electric drive of the extractor fan is usually powered by mains electricity (220/240 V) and the start-up and extraction speed can be controlled by a wall-mounted or remote-controlled dimmer switch. Extractor fans are equipped with automatisms (timer, programming, humidity and/or presence detection…) and some of them operate on 12 V so that they can be placed anywhere.

The flexible or rigid sheath into which the extractor fan is inserted is generally of the usual diameter (100, 120 or 125 mm), but some also exist in 80 mm.

Good to know: The drilling of a wall in large diameter can be done using a drill or a core drill equipped with a diamond bit (crown) usually water-operated. This type of machine can be rented by the day or half-day.

Purchase and price of an extractor fan

The purchase of an extractor fan can be made in a DIY store or at an electrical or plumbing and sanitary ware distributor, but many websites offer a much wider choice.

For less than $20, there are small (< 70 m³/h) single-speed extractor fans that can provide spot extraction to be controlled manually. It is around $100 that you will find the widest choice both in the aesthetics of the extractor fan and in the functions offered (speeds, presence detector, remote control, programming…).

Precision: it is possible to find complete kits in the aerators sections which include the extractor fan + its duct + the external outlet at an interesting price. Check that their installation is possible in the desired room.

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